~ 3 Hertz by a hand moving a charged tuning fork to battery terminal-- Use tuning fork for 128 or 512 Hz · A QUARTZ CRYSTAL VIBRATES at set frequency for each radio station
· AM 500-1600 KHz FM 88-108 Mhz
· Radio waves are made in space by moving charged particles
· RADAR is a kind of microwave
· FASTER VIBRATIONS BY TINY quartz CRYSTALS (<.02cm) or resonance of jumping electrons in a magnetron chamber
· YIELD MICROWAVES OF 109 Hz
-- FELT AS HEAT ON SKIN Hotplate left on on teachers desk-volunteer to blindly move toward it
· USES: THERMOGRAPH SATELLITE PHOTOS: LAVA, MINERALS, VEGET, DISEASED PLANTS, SNAKES, MISSILES, IR SIGNATURE
· CAUSED BY VIBRATIONS OF SOMETHING SMALLER THAN CRYSTALS, - MOLECULES OF MATTER
· 1013 Hz
· ALL MATTER HAS HEAT, VIBRATES, SO GIVES OFF IR
· The HIGHER THE TEMP THE HIGHER THE FREQUENCY EMITTED
Our world of beauty, information and action
· MOTION BY something still smaller - OUTER ELECTRONS OF ATOMS Jump & Fall
· 4 X 1014 TO 7 X 1014 RED TO VIOLET
Fluorescent light, Used to kill bacteria
· ELECTRONS Jump & Fall To HIGHER LEVELS
· Blacklight UV causes tan, skin cancer, wrinkles
THE HIGHER THE FREQUENCY OF LIGHT THE MORE ITS ENERGY (penetrates deeper)
Used to penetrate soft tissue for x-rays;
· 70kV ACCELERATED ELECTRONS RAPIDLY SMASH TO A STOP - the target gives off x-rays as its inner electrons are knocked off then fall back down.
· INNER ELECTRONS Jump & Fall · blocked by bones
How x-ray machines work
G. GAMMA RADIATION SPLITTING OF NUCLEI OF ATOMS converts Matter directly to Energy
· part of radioactivity of nuclear blasts or radiation
· Medical treatment of cancer
· NUCLEI PARTS AT FASTER RATES STILL FROM SUN & SUPERNOVAS & OUTER SPACE
· Higher energy than anywhere on earth
· Source of mutations on earth
· f about 1023 Hz
Light: Spreads Out - Travels in Straight Lines - Follows the Inverse Square Law
Illumination is Inversely proportional to the square of the Distance the light travels
Refraction - bending of light
laser beam refracts upon entering water at an angle.
Light from the pencil bends as it goes into air - spreading out and appearing larger
Lightt behaves as both a particle and a wave - at the same time! When the "particle" - photon goes through a substance it's slowed down by repeated absorption and reemission.
Photons thus slowed, when they strike at an angle to the medium are -as a wave- bent. One side of the wave travels more slowly than the other..
Different colors of light bend different amounts when refracted in rain drops-so they spread out
Setting Sun rays hit earth at angle and the slower red rays bend more than yellow which bends more than blue.
What Causes them?
Main page Astronomy page